He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud.Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines.
This makes the Saudi monarchy quite distinct from Western monarchies, which usually feature large, clearly defined royal families and orders of succession.
It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba.
It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains.
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's head of state and absolute monarch (i.e. He serves as the head of the Saudi royal family, the House of Saud.
The King is called the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques ( King Abdulaziz (known in the West as Ibn Saud) began conquering today's Saudi Arabia in 1902, by restoring his family as emirs of Riyadh.